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Reliability, reproducibility or consistency of measurements is a fundamental principle of the accuracy of a study. In any research process, given the large number of sources of potential errors, it is necessary for researchers to try to reduce those related to the measurement of variables in order to provide greater confidence in the results and conclusions of their study1,2.

In other words, an instrument is reliable, accurate or reproducible when the measurements made with it generate the same results at different times, scenarios and populations if applied under the same conditions; however, it must be assumed that in daily clinical practice, reliability is combined with another concept which is validity, giving rise to various scenarios, from valid and reliable measurements to those that lack validity and reliability, as in the case of observations or observers who agree only due to the effect of chance (Figure 1). Therefore, the greater the precision of a measurement, the greater the statistical power in the sample under study3.

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Teoría de la Educación. Revista Interuniversitaria is an international academic journal of Pedagogy that publishes, in open access, original research papers from a theoretical perspective and methodology of education, with the aim of providing pedagogical knowledge to researchers and practitioners to improve, through informed critical discussion, the description, explanation, understanding and application of educational thought and action.

1. The work will be original and unpublished and will not be subject to review process in other journals. The journal applies an anti-plagiarism program to each of the originals received. Before publication, it will be analyzed by two reviewers following the “double-blind” principle, who may make proposals for modification, if necessary. The final acceptance of an article requires the positive evaluation of both reviewers. In case of significant discrepancies, the article will be submitted to a third reviewer.

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The objective of deSignis, the official journal of the Latin American Federation of Semiotics, is the study of the processes of production of meaning in contemporary Latin American societies, enabling interdisciplinary dialogue and a cohabitation of points of view between researchers in the region and the international scientific community.

deSignis emphasizes the theoretical and methodological development of Semiotics, presenting concrete analyses of texts. It promotes dialogue and interdisciplinary debate in the social sciences for the formulation of cross-cutting concepts and comparative studies.

The growing development and richness of Ibero-American semiotics lead deSignis to present articles dedicated to the study of regional topics. It is oriented to publish research focused, especially, on the understanding and cultural integration of the area.

This stage lasts one/two week(s), the pre-selected articles are submitted to a double external evaluation process by peers accredited for this purpose in the journal (Reading Committee). The evaluation is done through a blind form.

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La depresión mayor representa un problema de salud pública debido a su alta prevalencia. La etiología de la depresión mayor es compleja porque en ella intervienen factores psicosociales, genéticos y biológicos. Entre los factores psicosociales, diferentes estudios señalan que el primer episodio depresivo aparece tras algún acontecimiento estresante y produce cambios a largo plazo en la fisiología cerebral. Estos cambios de larga duración producen variaciones a nivel estructural y en el funcionamiento de diferentes áreas cerebrales. Entre los factores genéticos implicados en la enfermedad depresiva, se ha informado de que unos 200 genes están relacionados con el trastorno depresivo mayor. Dentro de los factores biológicos, se evidencia la existencia de alteraciones en el nivel de neurotransmisores, citosinas y hormonas, cuyas acciones inducen modificaciones estructurales y funcionales en el sistema nervioso central, el sistema inmunológico y el sistema endocrino, lo que aumenta el riesgo de padecer depresión mayor. A pesar de los años de estudio, las bases biológicas de la depresión mayor y los mecanismos precisos de la eficacia de los antidepresivos siguen sin estar claros. El objetivo de la presente revisión es resumir las principales conclusiones de la literatura clínica y experimental sobre la etiología del trastorno depresivo mayor.