Blue blood universal language

Cashinducua and the creation of the Kogui

Discover this rich selection of digitized posters and other ephemera on HIV/AIDS from 1981 to the present. All of these items are part of the National Library of Medicine’s digital collections.

Until 1987-when the medical establishment introduced azidothymidine (AZT), the first drug that curbed HIV infection but, despite its wide availability, was very expensive-many service providers, particularly those working with gay populations, argued against testing. They feared that the violation of privacy would outweigh the positive support and treatment options for those who tested positive. With testing, the possibility of a quick, painful and seemingly fortuitous AIDS-related death was replaced by an equally terrible future of stigma, isolation and misdirected hatred as a result of an HIV-positive test.

Using a legendary illustration by American artist Normal Rockwell, this poster underscores a reality in the U.S. in the 1980s: to talk about sex was to talk about AIDS. The CSA hoped that the image, with its ability to discomfort, would alert straight white parents to the familiarity, normalcy and necessity of that conversation.


In chronological terms, the selected texts are located between the end of the 18th century and the present. The pattern used for their arrangement is precisely temporal, so that at the beginning is the Discurso do traductor [Translator’s Discourse] (1798), by Manuel Jacinto Nogueira da Gama, forged in connection with his version of Réflexions sur la métaphysique du calcul infinitesimal (1797), by Lazare Carnot. The final pages contain Nas sendas de «Crime e castigo» [On the Paths of Crime and Punishment] (2001), by Paulo Bezerra, an excerpt from the preface to his translation of Fyodor Dostoyevsky’s novel. In between, he has collaborated with other translators, some of them as outstanding as Odorico Mendes, Monteiro Lobato, Clarice Lispector and Haroldo de Campos.

Cuestión De Sangre (2021) Spanish Official Trailer

The author describes the influence of Hispanic-Arab culture in Latin American culture, and aims to describe this influence from the point of view of language and the development of the humanities, arts and sciences. His approach is that the eight hundred years of Arab invasion in Spain and the Spanish invasion of four years in America were the elements through which a quasi-global phenomenon of acculturation took place.

8The village constable, an ensign, purposely beat up a so-and-so in the dungeon because the loafer stole the candlesticks, the priceless jewels and the sapphires from the admiral’s couch and from the ivory inlaid shelf. May the money be taken away from him.

16The Europe of that period and of the previous one prided itself on barbarities such as having made Galileo retract his astronomical affirmations, of considering medicine an obscene practice and chemistry as witchcraft, the study of foreign texts as paganism, the personal interpretation of the Bible as something of the devil, the study of the natural sciences as something sinful, etc., up to the famous and infamous Inquisition sadly called «holy».

JURASSIC WORLD – Saving the Dinosaurs

Paraguay’s literature has two aspects: that produced in Spanish and that created in Guarani, without detracting from the country’s literature in other native languages. However, it must be said that the former has had greater development and diffusion than the latter. Intellectual activity has its beginnings in colonial times, which would develop later with the arrival of independence in 1811. Since then, favorable auspices for culture were implemented. Paraguayan literature is one of the most unknown in Latin America, and its writers known outside its borders are Josefina Pla, Gabriel Casaccia, Elvio Romero, Rubén Bareiro Saguier and Augusto Roa Bastos. Although the historiography of Hispanic American literature does not include authors born after 1940, this lack of knowledge does not imply that there is no corpus of works that for various reasons did not transcend the country’s borders.

Another writer who also belongs to the literary history of Paraguay is the clergyman Martín del Barco Centenera, who arrived in the Río de la Plata in 1573 with the army of the Adelantado Ortiz de Zárate. This archdeacon of the Cathedral of Asunción composed a long poem of twenty-eight cantos in royal octaves entitled La Argentina (Lisbon, 1602), and was the first cantor of the city of his archdeaconry: