Is the University of Salamanca public or private?
This article corresponds to the fourth installment of a methodological series of six narrative reviews on general topics in biostatistics and clinical epidemiology, which will explore published articles available in the main databases and specialized reference texts. The series is oriented to the training of undergraduate and graduate students, and is carried out by the Chair of Methodology of Scientific Research of the School of Medicine of the University of Valparaiso, Chile. Therefore, the aim of this manuscript is to address the main theoretical and practical concepts of cohort studies.
In comparison to case-control studies, observational methodology addressed in the previous installment of this series, which have an already known outcome for which their probable exposures will be studied, in cohorts it is the exposures that separate the groups towards their potentially different fates. From this, another fundamental difference emerges: directionality, since case-control studies analyze their data from effect to cause, while the cohort operates prospectively: from cause to effect .
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Anderson, A., Huttenlocher, D., Kleinberg, J., & Leskovec, J. (2014). Engaging with massive online courses. Ponencia presentada en Proceedings of the 23rd international conference on World Wide Web – WWW ’14 (pp. 687-698), Seúl, Corea. doi:10.1145/2566486.2568042
Appleton, J. J., Christenson, S. L., & Furlong, M. J. (2008). Student engagement with school: Critical conceptual and methodological issues of the construct. Psychology in the Schools, 45(5), 369-386. doi:10.1002/pits.20303
Ferguson, R., & Clow, D. (2015). Examinar el compromiso: Analysing learner subpopulations in Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC). Ponencia presentada en Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Learning Analytics And Knowledge – LAK ’15 (pp. 51-58). Poughkeepsie, NY, EE.UU. doi:10.1145/2723576.2723606
Guajardo-Leal, B. E., Valenzuela, J. R. & Scott, J. (2019). El compromiso del estudiante como predictor de la finalización de xMOOC: Un análisis de cinco cursos sobre sostenibilidad energética, Online Learning Journal. 23(2), 105-123. Recuperado de: http://hdl.handle.net/11285/632315
Skidmore College is a private liberal arts college in Saratoga Springs, New York. Approximately 2650 students are enrolled at Skidmore to earn a bachelor of arts or bachelor of science degree in one of more than 60 areas of study.
Skidmore College has undergone many transformations since its founding in the early 20th century as a women’s college. The Young Women’s Industrial Club was formed in 1903 by Lucy Ann Skidmore (1853-1931) with money from the estate of her husband, who died in 1879, and her father, Joseph Russell Skidmore (1821-1882), a former coal merchant. In 1911, the club was founded under the name “Skidmore School of Arts” as a college to train young women vocationally and professionally. Skidmore College was established in 1911.
Skidmore College was established in downtown Saratoga Springs, but on October 28, 1961, the college acquired the Jonsson Campus, 850 acres (3.4 km2) of land on the outer edges of Saratoga Springs. The Jonsson Campus was named for Skidmore Trustee Erik Jonsson, the founder and president of Texas Instruments and former mayor of Dallas, Texas (1964-71). The new Jonsson Tower is named after him. The first new buildings on the campus opened in 1966 and, by 1973, the move was nearly complete. The old campus was sold to Verrazzano College, a new institution that was not successful, and its buildings have since been put to other uses.
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Family obligations present another challenge for Hispanic students. A 2014 survey by National Journal found that two-thirds of Hispanic women and men who sought full-time work or joined the military after completing high school expressed doing so to help their loved ones financially. In comparison, only 39% of white women and men who did not attend college said the same.
However, many schools classify undocumented students as “aliens,” which removes their ability to be eligible for federal financial aid and reduced in-state tuition rates.
Read our Guide for Undocumented Students in Higher Education to learn more about the various resources available to help this population pursue higher education.
Students in the U.S. must be classified as permanent residents before they can receive financial aid. Most immigrants obtain permanent residency by applying for a Green Card, but current laws stipulate that undocumented citizens cannot do that; instead, they must leave the U.S. and apply for permanent residency from the consulate of their home country.